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Tour of Italy for the Financially Challenged - logo6.6k

Eleonora Pimentel Fonseca
(3 of 3)
Darren Peterson
Ital334, Prof. Barbara Nucci, May 1999

A Chronology of
Events in Italy

60,000 BC - 1300 AD

1300 AD - 1998 AD




Baths of Baiae;
Observations and Inferences
The Casamari Abbey
The First 400 Years
Agriculture in the
Roman Empire
Pope Julius II

Eleonora Pimentel
The Parthenopean Republic

The Effect of Mussolini's 
Pronatalist View on Women


      Once the ammunition was exhausted the republicans had no choice other than surrender. (Une, Online)  On June 23rd 1799 Cardinal Ruffo accepted the surrender of the forts held by the French and their republican allies under a flag of truce.  A general amnesty was granted to the French allowing them to withdraw unmolested to Toulon. (Marriott, 25)
      Within two days King Ferdinand IV returned to Naples.  The King denounced the terms accepted by Cardinal Ruffo and terrible retribution was inflicted upon the republicans of Naples.  On August 17th 1799 Eleonora sat silently as she listened to the charges for the crimes of which she was accused.  These crimes included the following: public speech in the streets, speech on platforms, and last but not least, the drafting of a sordid newspaper.   Today these are not considered great crimes in most countries of the world, however in Italy, in 1799, these were offenses that were punishable by death.  In her defense she proudly stated that she acted " that Neapolitan ground could become free."   She added "...the death of the patriots will, one day, not be considered useless." (Une, Online)

      Despite her family's aristocratic status and her cultured and noble presence, Eleonora was sentenced to death by hanging.  She requested the guillotine, which was her right as an aristocrat.  The judge responded with the following: "You are not a Neapolitan aristocrat.  You dishonored the true aristocrats and the true ladies of the court.  Our laws do not grant any nobility to you!"(Une, Online)

      On August 20th, 1799 Eleonora Pimentel Fonseca refused to confess prior to the execution of her sentence.   She said "I do not have any faults to confess..."   Then she recited the words of Saint Augustine "You, my God, supervise my steps and release from any uncertainty my mouth and my heart."  With that she was led to the gallows.  Proudly, she refused assistance as she ascended the stairs to the platform.(Une, Online)
      She is buried under a paving stone at the Church of Carmine with other patriot martyrs.  There is no epitaph to preserve their memories. (Une, Online) 

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