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Tour of Italy for the Financially Challenged - logo6.6k

Eleonora Pimentel Fonseca
(2 of 3)
Darren Peterson
Ital334, Prof. Barbara Nucci, May 1999

A Chronology of
Events in Italy

60,000 BC - 1300 AD

1300 AD - 1998 AD




Baths of Baiae;
Observations and Inferences
The Casamari Abbey
The First 400 Years
Agriculture in the
Roman Empire
Pope Julius II

Eleonora Pimentel
The Parthenopean Republic

The Effect of Mussolini's 
Pronatalist View on Women



      Later, in a comment regarding the violence of the French revolution, Eleonora stated that "All will be different in Naples." She believed that she could help end tyranny by preaching about coming era of democracy.  She advocated a peaceful revolution that would soon be underway.

      After her home was searched, under painful and humiliating conditions, the Marchioness Fonseca Pimentel was charged with Jacobinism and placed in the Vicaria prison.  The date was October 5th, 1798.  Persecutions of the Neapolitan Jacobins became relentless even though they adhered to a cultural tradition of non-violence.(Une, Online) 

      In December of 1798 the French forces under Championet invaded Naples.  King Ferdinand IV and his minions left the city to seek the safety of  Palermo and the protection of the British fleet.(Marriott, p.24) During the ensuing  anarchy in Naples all of the prisoners were released from the prison of Vicaria; including Eleonora Pimentel Fonseca.  Upon her release Eleonora moved directly to take a part in the revolutionary action.(Une, Online) 

      On January 24th, 1799, the patriot revolutionaries celebrate the proclamation of the Neapolitan Republic, also known as the Parthenopean Republic.(Une, Online)

      In order to publicize the ideals of the revolution and the newly founded republic Eleonora accepts, on behalf of the provisional government, the title of director, the first political periodical in Naples; the Monitore Napoletano.(Une, Online)  The Monitore Napoletano was launched on February 2nd, 1799 making the following announcement: "This paper gives an account of all government operations!"  The paper was made up of four large pages that were filled with the passionate editorials of Eleonora. (Macciocchi, p.263)  The Monitore was released twice each week; on Tuesdays and on Saturdays.  The last issue was published on the 8th of June 1799.  In all, there were 35 regular issues and two supplemental issues.(Macciocchi, p.265)

      During the summer of 1799 the European powers combined against France and her allies.  In a brief summer campaign all of Napoleon’s Italian conquests were wrestled from him.(Grindrod, p.39)  Additionally, the inequities inflicted upon the Pope and the Holy City by the French inflamed a peasantry devoted to their church.  Thus, an "Army of Faith" was mobilized to be commanded by the intrepid Cardinal Ruffo.  They harassed the French in country districts, and, supported by British and Russian ships in the harbor, attacked Naples itself.(Marriott, p.24)  Ruffo’s forces entered Naples on June 13th resulting in inexpressible carnage.  Members of the republican government and the republican patriots sought refuge in the fortress of Sant’Elmo.  Eleonora fought alongside of the other patriots who were willing to die for their ideals.(Une, Online) 

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